Abydos (Ȝbḏw)

city, cemetery

Location

Nome: 8th Upper Egyptian nome

Geographical coordinates: 26º11´N / 31º55´S

Abydos is located on the west bank of the Nile, about 11km west of the river in the deserted area between the cultivated land and mountains. The city is situated on the border of the cultivation, the cemeteries were founded deeper in the desert. The surface is flat, the city was located on the axis to the wadi.

Parts

Abydos: area between the Osiris temple enclosure/Kom es-Sultan and the North cemetery ; Abydos: cemeteries ; Abydos: city 

Description

The site of Abydos is a large archaeological area. Some structures in North Abydos can be connected with the reign of Hatshepsut. Although nothing is preserved from the city itself, the existence of the temple in the city can be proved.

On the southwest of the area of the city, the extensive cemetery area was situated, demarcated by Nefer-hetep I, the king of the 13th dynasty [Helck, Historisch-biographische Texte, 18-19, no. 26; Anthony Leahy, A Protective Measure at Abydos in the Thirteenth Dynasty, The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 75 (1989), 41-60].[1]  Tombs dated to the reign of Hatshepsut were found at cemeteries D and F.

Although during the reign of Hatshepsut only the northern part of the site is proved to have been utilised, the older monuments in South Abydos as well as in the west part of the site were, most probably, still in use. Neb-wawi, the official of Hatshepsut and Thutmose III, claims on his stela that he played some role during the restoration of the complex of Ahmose.[2] On the same stela another structure is mentioned: Ḫʿ-mnw,[3] which is interpreted as the only occurrence of the name of the mortuary complex of Ahmose in Abydos [Harvey, Abydos, 124-125]. However, the text says that Neb-wawy was promoted to the office of the Chief Speaker in Ḫʿ-mnw (r ḥrj m Ḫʿ-mnw) “in order to sanctify the house (pr) of his father, King of Lower and Upper Egypt Neb-pehti-Ra” [Urk. IV, 209.12]. Elizabeth Frood suggests then that the name can be interpreted as a description of the whole region of South Abydos [Frood, 68 [n]].

One of the old rituals performed in connection with a funeral was the pilgrimage to Abydos. The scenes showing the water procession described as the voyage to Abydos were represented in tombs of officials of Hatshepsut’s time [E.g. tomb of Pu-im-Ra in Thebes (TT39), north chapel, east wall, above the door lintel (Davies, Puimra II, pl. XLVI): ḫd m ḥtp r Ȝbḏw [...] nṯr ʿȜ nb Jmnt.t; tomb of Pa-heri at El-Kab, west wall, north end (Tyler, Paheri, pl. V): ʿpr n Jnpw ḫntj sḥ-nṯr dj(.w) wdj r tȜ r Ȝbḏw jn ḥȜtj-ʿ PȜ-ḥrj].

Footnotes

  1. ^ 19: El Amrah and Abydos, 1899-1901 - Egypt Exploration Fund - 1902 - Randall-MacIver, David, Mace, Arthur Cruttenden; .
  2. ^ 26: Urkunden der 18. Dynastie. Historisch-biographische Urkunden - - 1906 - Sethe, Kurt; 728: Ritual Function and Priestly Narrative: the Stelae of the High Priest of Osiris, Nebwawy - - - Frood, Elisabeth.
  3. ^ 26: Urkunden der 18. Dynastie. Historisch-biographische Urkunden - - 1906 - Sethe, Kurt; 728: Ritual Function and Priestly Narrative: the Stelae of the High Priest of Osiris, Nebwawy - - - Frood, Elisabeth.

Jadwiga Iwaszczuk

Exploration

Ancient people connected to the site: Neb-wawy ,

Objects: